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Home » Plant infomation

Arnica montana  Linn.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Arnica montana Linn.

English Name

:

Arnica, Leopards Bane and Mountain Tobacco

Synonym(s)

:

Arnica chamissonis

Family

:

Asteraceae

 

General Info

Description

Arnica montana is a perennial herb, self fertile plant growing to a height of 0.3 to 0.15 m. Round and hairy stem ending in one to three flower stalks. Leaves are bright green; the upper surfaces are toothed and slightly hairy while lower leaves have rounded tips. Most of the leaves are in a basal rosette, but one or two pairs may be found on the stem. The flowers are yellow-orange in colour (approximately 5 cm in diameter); and are hermaphrodite.

Herb Effects

Stimulates activity of white blood cells, stimulates the cardiovascular system (including the heart; it is more potent compared to Hawthorn), antiinflammatory, antiseptic.

Links

Botanical.com
MedicineNet.com
Plants for a Future
The American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

Pseudoguayanolids, arnicin (a bitter yellow, crystalline compound), a volatile oil, sesquiterpene lactones, thymol, flavonoids, inulin, carotenoids and tannins; eupafolin, patuletin, spinacetin ; beta-sitosterol, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, choline, gallic acid, inulin, luteolin, thymol (flower); helenalin (plant).

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Thymol 89-83-8 5-methyl-2-propan-2-
yl-phenol
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
Inulin 9005-80-5 2-[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2
-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2
-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2
-[[2-[[2-[ [2-[[2-[
[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[
[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[
[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[[2-[
[2 -[[2-[[3,4-dihyd
roxy-2,5-bis(hydroxy
methyl)oxolan-2-yl]o
xymethyl]-3,4- dihy
droxy-5-(hydroxymeth
yl)oxolan-2-yl]oxyme
thyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-
5-(hyd roxymethyl)o
xolan-2-yl]oxymethyl
]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(h
ydroxymethyl)oxola
n-2-yl]oxymethyl]-3,
4-dihydroxy-5-(hydro
xymethyl)oxolan-2-yl
]oxymethyl ]-3,4-di
hydroxy-5-(hydroxyme
thyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy
methyl]-3,4-dihydrox
y- 5-(hydroxymethyl
)oxolan-2-yl]oxymeth
yl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-
(hydroxymethyl )oxo
lan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-
3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hyd
roxymethyl)oxolan-2-
yl]oxy methyl]-3,4-
dihydroxy-5-(hydroxy
methyl)oxolan-2-yl]o
xymethyl]-3,4-dihy
droxy-5-(hydroxymeth
yl)oxolan-2-yl]oxyme
thyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-
5-(hydroxy methyl)o
xolan-2-yl]oxymethyl
]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(h
ydroxymethyl)oxolan-
2- yl]oxymethyl]-3,
4-dihydroxy-5-(hydro
xymethyl)oxolan-2-yl
]oxymethyl]-3, 4-di
hydroxy-5-(hydroxyme
thyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy
methyl]-3,4-dihydrox
y-5-(h ydroxymethyl
)oxolan-2-yl]oxymeth
yl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-
(hydroxymethyl)oxo
lan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-
3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hyd
roxymethyl)oxolan-2-
yl]oxymeth yl]-3,4-
dihydroxy-5-(hydroxy
methyl)oxolan-2-yl]o
xymethyl]-3,4-dihydr
ox y-5-(hydroxymeth
yl)oxolan-2-yl]oxyme
thyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-
5-(hydroxymeth yl)o
xolan-2-yl]oxymethyl
]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(h
ydroxymethyl)oxolan-
2-yl]o xymethyl]-3,
4-dihydroxy-5-(hydro
xymethyl)oxolan-2-yl
]oxymethyl]-3,4-di
hydroxy-5-(hydroxyme
thyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy
methyl]-3,4-dihydrox
y-5-(hydro xymethyl
)oxolan-2-yl]oxymeth
yl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-
(hydroxymethyl)oxola
n- 2-yl]oxymethyl]-
3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hyd
roxymethyl)oxolan-2-
yl]oxymethyl]- 3,4-
dihydroxy-5-(hydroxy
methyl)oxolan-2-yl]o
xymethyl]-3,4-dihydr
oxy-5- (hydroxymeth
yl)oxolan-2-yl]oxyme
thyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-
5-(hydroxymethyl)o
xolan-2-yl]oxymethyl
]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(h
ydroxymethyl)oxolan-
2-yl]oxyme thyl]-3,
4-dihydroxy-5-(hydro
xymethyl)oxolan-2-yl
]oxymethyl]-3,4-dihy
dr oxy-5-(hydroxyme
thyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy
methyl]-3,4-dihydrox
y-5-(hydroxyme thyl
)oxolan-2-yl]oxymeth
yl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-
(hydroxymethyl)oxola
n-2-yl ]oxymethyl]-
3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hyd
roxymethyl)oxolan-2-
yl]oxymethyl]-3,4-
dihydroxy-5-(hydroxy
methyl)oxolan-2-yl]o
xy-6-(hydroxymethyl)
oxane-3,4, 5-triol
C228H382O191 Click Here To Enlarge
Eupafolin 520-11-6 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-
methoxy-chromen-7-on
e
C16H12O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Patuletin 519-96-0 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy
-6-methoxy-chromen-7
-one
C16H12O8 Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14, 15,16,17
-dodecahydro-1H-cycl
openta[a]phenanthren
-3-ol
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeic acid Not Available 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)prop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Chlorogenic acid 327-97-9 3-[3-(3,4-dihydroxyp
henyl)prop-2-enoylox
y]-1,4,5-trihydroxy-
cyclohexan e-1-carb
oxylic acid
C16H18O9 Click Here To Enlarge
Choline 67-48-1 2-hydroxyethyl-trime
thyl-ammonium
C5H14NO+ Click Here To Enlarge
Gallic acid 149-91-7 3,4,5-trihydroxybenz
oic acid
C7H6O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Luteolin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-ch
romen-7-one
C15H10O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Helenalin 6754-13-8 Not Available C15H18O4 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

An external treatment for bruises and sprains (Castro, 1990 and Bown, 1995); in the treatment of heart complaints and as a booster for the immune system. Arnica is used topically for a wide range of conditions including bruises, sprains, muscle aches, wound healing, acne, superficial phlebitis, rheumatic pain, inflammation from insect bites, and swelling due to fractures.

Contraindication

In humans, the severe ingestion of A. montana tinctures and extracts has led to many cases of poisoning. Oral intake of 30 ml of a 20% A. montana and an another dose of 60-80 grams of another tincture were reported to produce lethal symptoms. Symptoms were due to the irritant properties of A. montana. Symptoms include nausea, dizziness, diarrhoea, fever, epistaxis, fatal gastroenteritis, paralysis of skeletal and cardiac muscles, increase or decrease of pulse rate, dyspnoe and collapse. In pregnant women this may cause abortion (Bisset, 1994).


A body lotion containing Arnica extracts worsened the skin lesions of contact dermatitis from handling of Gaillardia cultivars [Article in German] (Hausen , 1985).

Reference

Castro, M., 1990. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. Macmillan. London.


Bisset N. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Stuttgart, Germany: CRC Press, 1994:83-87.

Stary, Medicinal Herbs and Plants.

Grieve. M. A Modern Herbal. 1931 (www.botanical.com).

Johnson T. CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference (www.herbweb.com/herbage).

Lyss G. Schmidt TJ. Merfort I. Pahl HL. Helenalin. an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactone.

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