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Home » Plant infomation

Citrus limon  (L.) BURM.F.

   

Botanical Name

:

Citrus limon (L.) BURM.F.

English Name

:

Lemon

Synonym(s)

:

Citrus x limonia (Osbeck.), Citrus limonum (Risso.)

Family

:

Rutaceae

 

General Info

Description

Small, spreading, evergreen trees or tall shrubs. Stems often armed with long thorns, particularly in limes or in all types when young. Older wood has thin, dark grey bark. Leaves are unifoliate, relatively thick, ovate with acute to obtuse tips, having entire margins and a petiole wing of various width, depending on species. Leaves contain characteristic citrus oils in glands ("pellucid dots") which makes them fragrant when crushed. Flowers are solitary or in short cymes, borne axillary on current flush of growth. Usually perfect, rarely staminate by pistil abortion. Normally 5 petals and sepals; petals linear, sometimes curved lengthwise, white, waxy, and thick; sepals fused at base to form a small cup. A globular, green ovary subtends a thin straight style which terminates in a pronounced, donut-shaped stigma. Ovary with 10 to 14 locules in most commercial cultivars, each with potentially 4 to 8 seeds; axile placentation. Ovary, superior, subtended by raised nectary disc. Fruit is a hesperidium. The endocarp is divided into 10 to 14 sections, separated by thin septa, each containing up to 8 seeds, but usually only one seed/segment.

Herb Effects

Carminative and stomachic and stimulates the secretion of gastric juices (peel); antibacterial and reduces fever (juice); rubefacient and stimulant (oil); repels insects (peel).

Links

Lemon
Citrus limon
Plants for a Future
Botanical.com

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

1,8-Cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol,caryophyllene-oxide, citronellal, citronellol, nerol, terpinen-4-ol, thymol (leaf essential oil); adenosine, alpha-terpinene (pericarp); ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, caffeic acid, citric acid, diosmin, ferulic acid, hesperidin, imperatorin, limonin, lutein, niacin, p-coumaric acid, perillaldehyde, rutin, sinapic acid, thiamin (fruit); bergapten, bergamottin, beta-pinene, byakangelicin, camphene, carvone, caryophyllene, citral, gamma-terpinene, geranial, geraniol, hexanal, isoimperatorin, limonene, myrcene, neral, p-cymene (essential oil); beta-sitosterol, diosmetin, isopimpinellin, stachydrine (plant); caffeine, luteolin, quercetin (flower); naringin, pectin, syringin (pericarp); scopoletin, umbelliferone (shoot)

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Adenosine Not Available 2-(6-aminopurin-9-yl
)-5-(hydroxymethyl)o
xolane-3,4-diol
C10H13N5O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeic acid Not Available 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)prop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeine 5743-12-4 1,3,7-trimethylpurin
e-2,6-dione hydrate
C8H12N4O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Ferulic acid 24276-84-4 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metho
xy-phenyl)prop-2-eno
ic acid
C10H10O4 Click Here To Enlarge
1,8-Cineole 8024-53-1 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-ox
abicyclo[2.2.2]octan
e
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Pinene 80-56-8 2,7,7-trimethylbicyc
lo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene
C10H16
alpha-Terpineol 10482-56-1 2-(4-methyl-1-cycloh
ex-3-enyl)propan-2-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Caryophyllene oxide 32095-03-7 Not Available C15H24O Click Here To Enlarge
Citronellal 26489-02-1 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en
al
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Citronellol 26489-01-0 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en
-1-ol
C10H20O Click Here To Enlarge
Nerol 106-24-1 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6
-dien-1-ol
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Terpinen-4-ol Not Available 4-methyl-1-propan-2-
yl-cyclohex-3-en-1-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Thymol 89-83-8 5-methyl-2-propan-2-
yl-phenol
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Terpinene 99-86-5 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexa-1,3-die
ne
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
beta Carotene 7235-40-7 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
Citric acid Not Available 2-hydroxypropane-1,2
,3-tricarboxylic
acid
C6H8O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Diosmin Not Available 5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydro
xy-4-methoxy-phenyl)
-7-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)
-3,4,5-tri hydroxy-
6-[[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6S)
-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
methyl-oxan-2-yl]oxy
me thyl]oxan-2-yl]o
xy-chromen-4-one
C28H32O15 Click Here To Enlarge
Hesperidin 520-26-3 5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydro
xy-4-methoxy-phenyl)
-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy
-6-[(3,4,5 -trihydr
oxy-6-methyl-oxan-2-
yl)oxymethyl]oxan-2-
yl]oxy-chroman-4-one
C28H34O15 Click Here To Enlarge
Imperatorin 70102-00-0 Not Available C16H14O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonin 1392-24-1 Not Available C26H30O8 Click Here To Enlarge
Lutein 34445-91-5 4-[18-(4-hydroxy-2,6
,6-trimethyl-1-cyclo
hexenyl)-3,7,12,16-t
etramethyl -octadec
a-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15
,17-nonaenyl]-3,5,5-
trimethyl-cyclohex-2
-e n-1-ol
C40H56O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Niacin 99148-57-9 pyridine-3-carboxyli
c acid
C6H5NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
P-coumaric acid 501-98-4 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)p
rop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Perilla aldehyde 6611-91-2 4-prop-1-en-2-ylcycl
ohexene-1-carbaldehy
de
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
Rutin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
[(3,4,5-tr ihydroxy
-6-methyl-tetrahydro
pyran-2-yl)oxymethyl
]tetrahydropyran-2-y
l] oxy-chromen-7-on
e trihydrate
C27H36O19 Click Here To Enlarge
Sinapic acid 530-59-6 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dim
ethoxy-phenyl)prop-2
-enoic acid
C11H12O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Thiamin 59-43-8 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-met
hyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)m
ethyl]-4-methyl-1-th
ia-3-azoni acyclope
nta-2,4-dien-5-yl]et
hanol
C12H17N4OS+ Click Here To Enlarge
Bergapten 484-20-8 Not Available C12H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Bergamottin 7380-40-7 Not Available C21H22O4 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Pinene 23089-32-9 6,6-dimethyl-2-methy
lidene-norpinane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Byakangelicin 482-25-7 Not Available C17H18O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Camphene 5794-04-7 2,2-dimethyl-3-methy
lidene-norbornane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Carvone 53763-73-8 2-methyl-5-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohex-2-en-
1-one
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
Caryophyllene 87-44-5 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-
methylidene-bicyclo[
7.2.0]undec-4-ene
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
Citral 96680-15-8 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6
-dienal
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
gamma-Terpinene 99-85-4 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexa-1,4-die
ne
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Geranial 141-27-5 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6
-dienal
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
Geraniol 8007-13-4 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6
-dien-1-ol
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Hexanal 66-25-1 hexanal C6H12O Click Here To Enlarge
Isoimperatorin 482-45-1 Not Available C16H14O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonene 9003-73-0 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Myrcene 2153-31-3 7-methyl-3-methylide
ne-octa-1,6-diene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Neral 96680-15-8 (2E)-3,7-dimethyloct
a-2,6-dienal
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
p-Cymene Not Available Dichlororuthenium;
1-methyl-5,6-dihydro
-4H-pyrimidine;
p-cymene
C15H24Cl2N2Ru Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14, 15,16,17
-dodecahydro-1H-cycl
openta[a]phenanthren
-3-ol
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Diosmetin 520-34-3 4,5-dihydroxy-2-(3-h
ydroxy-4-methoxy-phe
nyl)-chromen-7-one
C16H12O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Isopimpinellin 482-27-9 Not Available C13H10O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Stachydrine Not Available 1,1-dimethyl-2,3,4,5
-tetrahydropyrrole-2
-carboxylate
C7H13NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeine 5743-12-4 1,3,7-trimethylpurin
e-2,6-dione hydrate
C8H12N4O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Luteolin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-ch
romen-7-one
C15H10O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Quercetin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy
-chromen-7-one
C15H10O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Naringin 38664-96-9 7-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-
4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hyd
roxymethyl)-3-[(2S,3
R,4R,5S,6S )-3,4,5-
trihydroxy-6-methyl-
oxan-2-yl]oxy-oxan-2
-yl]oxy-5-hydroxy-2-
(4 -hydroxyphenyl)c
hroman-4-one
C27H32O14 Click Here To Enlarge
Syringin Not Available (2S,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(
hydroxymethyl)-6-[4-
[(E)-3-hydroxyprop-1
-enyl]-2,6 -dimetho
xy-phenoxy]oxane-3,4
,5-triol
C17H24O9 Click Here To Enlarge
Scopoletin 92-61-5 2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-
chromen-7-one
C10H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Umbelliferone 93-35-6 2-hydroxychromen-7-o
ne
C9H6O3 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

In fighting scurvy, inflammations, rheumatism, diarrhea, dysentery and reducing fever (juice); cleansing the eye (diluted juice). Lemons are an excellent preventative medicine and have a wide range of uses in the domestic medicine. Applied locally, the juice is a good astringent and is used as a gargle for sore throats etc. It is also a good antiperiodic and a substitute for quinine in treating malaria and other fevers.

Contraindication

Lemon peel oil may cause contact dermatitis, chronic in those who handle, cut and squeeze lemons daily. People that suck lemons may suffer irritation and eruptions around the mouth. The wood of lemon trees and its saw-dust may induce skin reactions in sensitive woodworkers.

Reference

Sharma, Classical Uses of Medicinal Plants.


The Himalaya Drug Company.

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